NR and NMN anti-aging: Nicotinamide riboside (NR): benefits, side effects and dosage

January 26, 2021

NR and NMN anti-aging: Nicotinamide riboside (NR): benefits, side effects and dosage

1. What is nicotinamide riboside?
Nicotinamide riboside or niacin is another form of vitamin B3, also known as niacin.

Nicotinamide riboside (NR, Nicotinamide riboside), is a derivative of vitamin B3, and acts as a driving substance for nicotine amide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). According to scientific peer review literature, nicotinamide ribose was discovered in 2004 as a vitamin precursor of NAD+, and in 2007 (Charles Brenner Charles Brenner) discovered as a Sirtuin [permanent link] (deacetylase) ) Activate the compound. In many organisms, Sirtuin [permanent failure link] is also involved in regulating DNA health and longevity. (Source: Wikipedia)

Like other forms of vitamin B3, nicotinamide ribose is converted by the body into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +), a coenzyme or auxiliary molecule.

NAD+ acts as a fuel for many key biological processes and is a trusted source (National Center for Biological Information 1, 2):

Turn food into energy

Repair damaged DNA

Strengthen cell defense system

Set the body's internal clock or circadian rhythm

However, the NAD+ content in your body will naturally decrease with age (3).

Lower NAD+ levels have caused health problems such as aging and chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer's disease and vision loss (1).

Interestingly, animal studies have found that increasing NAD+ levels may help reverse signs of aging and reduce the risk of many chronic diseases (4, 5, 6).

Nicotinamide ribose supplements (such as niacin) have rapidly gained popularity because they seem to be particularly effective in increasing NAD+ levels (7).

Trace amounts of nicotinamide ribose are also found in milk, yeast and beer (8).

Summary: Nicotinamide riboside or niacin is another form of vitamin B3. It is recommended as an anti-aging supplement because it can increase the level of NAD+ in your body, which is the fuel for many key biological processes.

2. Potential benefits
Since most studies on nicotinamide riboside and NAD+ come from animal studies, it is impossible to draw clear conclusions about their effectiveness in humans. In other words, we can only say some potential health benefits of nicotinamide ribosomes:

1. Easily convert to NAD+
NAD + is a coenzyme or auxiliary molecule involved in many biological reactions.

Although this is essential for maintaining optimal health, research has shown that NAD+ levels continue to decline with age. Lower NAD+ levels are related to aging and various harmful diseases (1 trusted source, 3 trusted source).

One way to increase NAD+ levels is to consume NAD+ precursors (components of NAD+), such as nicotinamide riboside.

Animal studies have shown that nicotinamide ribose can increase the NAD + content in the blood by up to 2.7 times. Moreover, it is easier to use for your body than other NAD+ precursors (7Trusted Source).

2. Activate enzymes that may promote healthy aging
Nicotinamide ribose helps to increase NAD + levels in the body.

In response, NAD+ activates certain enzymes, thereby promoting healthy aging.

One is sirtuins, which can improve the lifespan and overall health of animals. Studies have shown that sirtuins can repair damaged DNA, enhance stress resistance, reduce inflammation and provide other benefits that promote healthy aging (9, 10, 11). Sirtuins are also responsible for limiting the life span of calories (12).

The other is poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which can repair damaged DNA. Research has linked higher PARP activity with less DNA damage and longer life span (13, 14).

3. May help protect brain cells
NAD+ plays a key role in helping your brain cells age.

In brain cells, NAD+ helps control the production of PGC-1-alpha, which is a protein that seems to help protect cells from oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function (15).

Researchers believe that both oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function are related to age-related brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (16, 17, 18).

In mice with Alzheimer's disease, nicotinamide riboside can increase brain NAD+ levels and PGC-1-α production by 70% and 50%, respectively. By the end of the study, mice performed significantly better on memory-based tasks (4).

In a test-tube study, nicotinamide riboside can increase the level of NAD + in stem cells of patients with Parkinson's disease and significantly improve mitochondrial function (19).

However, it is not clear how helpful it is to increase the NAD+ levels of people with age-related brain diseases. More human research is needed.

4. May reduce the risk of heart disease
Aging is the main risk factor for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death in the world (20). It can cause blood vessels like your aorta to thicken, harden and soften.

Such changes will increase blood pressure levels and affect your heart.

In animals, increasing NAD+ can help reverse age-related arterial changes (21).

In humans, nicotinamide riboside can increase NAD+ levels, which can help reduce aortic stiffness and systolic blood pressure in adults at risk of hypertension (22). However, more human research is still needed.

5. Other potential benefits
In addition, nicotinamide ribose may provide some other benefits:

May help lose weight: Niacinamide ribose helps speed up the metabolism of mice. However, it is not clear whether it will have the same effect on humans, and how strong this effect is (23).

May reduce cancer risk: high NAD+ content helps prevent DNA damage and oxidative stress, which are related to the development of cancer (24, 25).

May help treat jet lag: NAD+ helps regulate the body's internal clock, so taking nicotine can help treat jet lag or other circadian rhythm disorders by resetting the body's internal clock (26).

May promote healthy muscle aging: increasing NAD+ levels can help improve muscle function, strength and endurance in aged mice (5, 27).

Summary: Nicotinamide ribose can increase the level of NAD +, which is related to potential health benefits such as aging, brain health, heart disease risk, etc.

3. Potential risks and side effects
Nicotinamide ribose is safe and has almost no side effects.

In human studies, taking 1,000 to 2,000 mg daily has no harmful effects (28, 29). However, most human studies have short duration and few participants. In order to understand its safety more accurately, more robust human studies are needed.

Some people have reported mild to moderate side effects such as nausea, fatigue, headache, diarrhea, stomach upset, and indigestion (30).

In animals, animals taking 300 mg per kilogram of body weight (136 mg per pound) per day have no harmful effects for 90 days (31).

Also, unlike vitamin B3 (niacin) supplements, nicotinamide riboside should not cause facial flushing (31 trusted source).

Summary: Nicotinamide riboside seems to be safe with few side effects. However, its long-term effects on humans are still relatively unknown.

4. Dosage and recommendations
Nicotinamide riboside comes in the form of tablets or capsules and is commonly referred to as niacin. It can be purchased in certain health food stores, on Amazon or through online retailers.

Urea supplements usually only contain nicotinamide ribose, but some manufacturers use it in combination with other ingredients such as the polyphenol red sandalwood, which is a polyphenol that is chemically similar to resveratrol (32).

Most Nickel supplement brands recommend taking 250-300 mg per day, depending on the brand, which is equivalent to 1-2 capsules per day.

Summary: Most niacin manufacturers recommend 250–300 mg nicotinamide ribose per day.

5. conclusion
Nicotinamide riboside is another form of vitamin B3 and has almost no side effects. It is usually sold as an anti-aging product. Your body converts it into NAD+, which provides energy for all your cells. Although NAD+ levels naturally decrease with age, increasing NAD+ levels may reverse some signs of aging. However, most of the research on nicotinamide ribose and NAD + is carried out in animals. Before it can be recommended as a treatment, more high-quality human studies are needed.